The checksum sector is a checksum of the previous 11 sectors, with the exception of three bytes in the boot sector Flags and percent used. The most common cause could be a boot sector virus, but this would also catch any other corruption to the VBR. A second checksum is used for the upcase table.
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This is a static table and should never change. Any corruption in the table could prevent files from being located because this table is used to convert the filenames to upper case when searching to locate a file.
The third checksum is in the directory file sets. Multiple directory records are used to define a single file and this is called a file set. This file set has metadata including the file name, time stamps, attributes, address of first cluster location of the data, file lengths, and the file name. A checksum is taken over the entire file set and a mismatch would occur if the directory file set was accidentally or maliciously changed. When the file system is mounted, and the integrity check is conducted, these hashes are verified.
Mounting also includes comparison of the version of the exFAT file system by the driver to make sure the driver is compatible with the file system it is trying to mount, and to make sure that none of the required directory records are missing for example, the directory record for the upcase table and Allocation Bitmap are required and the file system can't run if they are missing.
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If any of these checks fail, the file system should not be mounted, although in certain cases it may mount read-only. The file system provides extensibility through template-based metadata definitions using generic layouts and generic patterns. Accordingly, exFAT support was effectively limited to Microsoft's own products and those of Microsoft's licensees, which in turn inhibited exFAT's adoption as a universal exchange format.
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Interoperability requires that certain results be achieved in a particular, predefined way an algorithm. For exFAT, this potentially requires every implementation to perform certain procedures in exactly the same way as Microsoft's implementation. Some of the procedures used by Microsoft's implementation are patented, and these patents are owned by Microsoft. Regardless of whether open-source or not including Samsung's leaked kernel driver source that was initially fraudulently rebadged as GPL-licensed ;   Microsoft stated that "a license is required in order to implement exFAT and use it in a product or device.
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It may also be possible to achieve the intended results without infringing Microsoft's patents. There was, however, discussion within Microsoft of whether Microsoft should allow exFAT in Linux devices,   which eventually resulted in Microsoft publishing the official specification for open usage  and releasing the exFAT patents to the OIN in August From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. October This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September With VFATs, the , number must be multiplied by 21 worst case , which would result in ,, files instead.
January 27, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved Software Freedom Conservancy. Retrieved February 26, December 1, Retrieved February 11, The Windows Blog. Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved November 5, Retrieved March 1, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on May 7, February 27, Retrieved October 2, Retrieved August 28, Microsoft TechNet.
Retrieved September 15, Retrieved January 6, Paradigm Solutions. Retrieved April 9, Tom's Hardware.
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September 20, Join , subscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. Macs support a variety of file systems.
But, if you plan on using an external drive with both Macs and PCs, you should format the disk with the exFAT file system instead. So how do you know if your USB drive is using the right format? In the screenshot below, the drive is formatted with the exFAT file system. Again, formatting a drive will erase it completely, so make sure you have everything backed up that you want to keep. Select the drive by clicking its name. Both also work with Windows PCs. APM is an older, Mac-only partition scheme.